Exercise Page 307
CORRECTION: On Page 314, the gloss for भगीरथ states he is the great grandson of Sagara. It should read 'great great grandson'.
- Note #3 on Page 309 refers to the 'periphrastic future' form रोचयामास. See Lesson 21 for a simpler explanation of this form.
- The third line from the end of the exercise on Page 308 has the word शक्नुवन्तं. This is the Present Active Participle in masculine 2/1 for the verb शक् ('be able'), which can be translated here as 'being able' or simply 'able'.
Combined Devanāgarī Writing
The principles of translation presented in Lesson 15 must now be updated to the following:
- Sandhi and separation: Rewrite the sentence with all sandhis 'broken' and all words written separately.
- Stem/Root and meaning: Identify the noun/verb stem or verbal root of each word and their meaning. Look up unknown words in the vocabulary list. Determine the meanings of compound words.
- Grammatical classification: Classify each noun with its case/number, each verb with its tense/person/number, and other verb forms (gerund, etc.) and indeclinable words.
- Identify main clause: Each sentence should have a main clause consisting of either subject (first case) + verb ± object (second case), or PPP + object (first case) ± subject (third case).
- Divide into parts: To facilitate the translation of a longer sentence, it can be divided into parts based on: verbs (especially gerunds and participles), locative absolute phrases, and relative-correlative phrases.
- Each separated word should be a legitimate word in Sanskrit. If you cannot find a separated word in any vocabulary list or dictionary, chances are it has been separated incorrectly. For example, स्वर्गात्पृथिवीमवतरेत् should not be separated स्वर्गात् पृथिवी मवतरेत् because मवतरेत् is not a word.
- All nouns must have a case/number ending and all verbs must have a person/number ending. If you separate words so that any word is missing an appropriate ending, most likely they have been separated incorrectly or they are not separate words at all. For example, भगीरथमुक्त्वा should not be separated as भगीरथ मुक्त्वा but भगीरथम् उक्त्वा. सर्वलोककृतम् should not be separated as सर्वलोक कृतम् because it is a compound.
Final न् Sandhi
When न् occurs at the end of a word:
- It becomes ंस् before त्/थ्, e.g. अल्पान् तरून् becomes अल्पांस्तरून्
- It becomes ंश् before च्/छ्, e.g. तान् चौरान् becomes तांश्चौरान्
- अस्मिन् अन्तरे becomes अस्मिन्नन्तरे
- प्रत्यङ् आत्मा becomes प्रत्यङ्ङात्मा
- सुगण् ईशः becomes सुगण्णीशः